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Wednesday, 29 May 2013




Definitions:

Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They may come before the word they describe (That is a cute puppy.) or they may follow the word they describe (That puppy is cute.).
Adverbs are words that modify everything but nouns and pronouns. They modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where.
The only adverbs that cause grammatical problems are those that answer the question how, so focus on thes
1.      Adjectives

A - Comparison with -er/-est

clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest
We use -er/-est with the following adjectives:

1) adjectives with one syllable

Clean
cleaner
Cleanest
New
newer
Newest
Cheap
cheaper
Cheapest

2) adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:

2 - 1) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y

Dirty
dirtier
dirtiest
Easy
easier
easiest
Happy
happier
happiest
Pretty
prettier
prettiest

2 - 2) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er

Clever
cleverer
Cleverest

2 - 3) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le

Simple
simpler
simplest

2 - 4) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow

Narrow
narrower
narrowest


Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est

Large
larger
largest
leave out the silent -e
Big
bigger
biggest
Double the consonant after short vowel
Sad
sadder
saddest
Dirty
dirtier
dirtiest
Change -y to -i (consonant before -y)
Shy
shyer
shyest
Here -y is not changed to -i.
(although consonant before -y)


B - Comparison with more - most

difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult
all adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables - see
2 - 1 to 2 - 4)

C - Irregular adjectives

Good
better
best

Bad
worse
worst

Much
more
most
uncountable nouns
Many
more
most
countable nouns
Little
less
least

Little
smaller
smallest



D - Special adjectives

Some ajdectives have two possible forms of comparison.
common
commoner / more common
commonest / most common
Likely
likelier / more likely
likeliest / most likely
pleasant
pleasanter / more pleasant
pleasantest / most pleasant
Polite
politer / more polite
politest / most polite
Simple
simpler / more simple
simplest / most simple
Stupid
stupider / more stupid
stupidest / most stupid
Subtle
subtler / more subtle
subtlest
Sure
surer / more sure
surest / most sure


Difference in meaning with adjectives:

far
farther
farthest
Distance
further
furthest
distance or
time
late
later
latest

latter
x

X
last

old
older
oldest
people and things
elder
eldest
people (family)
near
nearer
nearest
Distance
X
next
Order

Sentences with comparisons

1. A=B
Our car is as fast as Peter's car.
2. A>
a) John's car isn't as fast as our car. (A
b) Our car is faster than John's car. (A>B)
Our car is faster than Peter's car.
Peter's car is slower than our car.
NOTE!
John is taller than me.

Max is as tall as me.
Do not mix up than with then.
  1. The adverbs in English
Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.
Adjectives tell us something about a person or a thing. Adjectives can modify nouns or pronouns.
Adjective
Adverb
Mandy is a careful girl.
Mandy drives carefully.
Mandy is very careful.

Mandy is a careful driver. This sentence is about Mandy, the driver, so use the adjective.
Mandy drives carefully. This sentence is about her way of driving, so use the adverb.

Form
Adjective + -ly
Adjective
Adverb
dangerous
dangerously
Careful
Carefully
Nice
Nicely
Easy
Easily
Horrible
Horribly
electronic
electronically

irregular forms
Good
Well
Fast
Fast
Hard
Hard



If the adjective ends in -le, the adverb ends in -ly.
Example: terrible - terribly
If the adjective ends in -e, then add -ly.
Example: safe - safely
Tip: Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs.
adjectives ending in -ly: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly
nouns, ending in -ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy
verbs, ending in -ly: apply, rely, supply
There is no adverb for an andjective ending in -ly.

Types of adverbs
1) Adverbs of manner
quickly
kindly
2) Adverbs of degree
very
rather
3) Adverbs of frequency
often
sometimes
4) Adverbs of time
now
today
5) Adverbs of place
here
nowhere

 comparison of adverbs in English

There are three forms:
- positive
- comparative
- superlative

A - Comparison with -er/-est
hard - harder - (the) hardest
We use -er/-est with the following adverbs:
1) all adverbs with one syllable
Fast
faster
fastest
High
higher
highest
2) The adverb: early

B - Comparison with more - most
carefully - more carefully - (the) most carefully
adverbs ending on -ly (not: early)

C - Irregular adverbs

Well
Better
Best
Badly
Worse
Worst
Much
More
Most
Little
Less
Least
Late
Later
Last
Far
farther
further
farthest
furthest

ATTENTION!
In informal English some adverbs are used without -ly (e.g. cheap, loud, quick). There are two forms of comparison possible, depending on the form af the adverb:
cheaply - more cheaply - most cheaply
cheap - cheaper - cheapest
The position of adverbs in sentences
We can put adverbs in different positions in sentences. There are three main positions but also a lot of exceptions.
In English we never put an adverb between the verb and the object.
We often play handball. - CORRECT
We play often handball. - WRONG


The three main positions of adverbs in English sentences
1) Adverb at the beginning of a sentence
Unfortunately, we could not see Mount Snowdon.
2) Adverb in the middle of a sentence
The children often ride their bikes.
3) Adverb at the end of a sentence
Andy reads a comic every afternoon.

More than one adverb at the end of a sentence
If there are more adverbs at the end of a sentence, the word order is normally:
Manner - Place - Time
Peter sang the song happily in the bathroom yesterday evening.
Adverbs of frequency
always, usually, regularly, normally, often, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, seldom, never are adverbs of frequency.
The position of these adverbs is:
before the main verb



Adverb of frequency
Verb

I

Always
get up
at 6.45.
Peter
can
Usually
Play
football on Sundays.
Mandy
has
sometimes
Got
lots of homework.






after a form of to be am, are, is (was, were)

Verb
Adverb of frequency

Susan
is
never
late.

The adverbs often, usually, sometimes and occasionally can go at the beginning of a sentence.
Sometimes I go swimming.
Often we surf the internet.
Somtimes these adverbs are put at the end of the sentence.
We read books occasionally.



The following adjectives and adverbs have the same form:
Adjective
Adverb
close
close
daily
daily
early
early
fair
fair
far
far
fast
fast
free
free
hard
hard
high
high
late
late
lively
lively
long
long
lovely
lovely
low
low
right
right
wide
wide
wrong
wrong


The following adverbs are not derived from adjectives:
Adverbs
Comment
here
adverb of place
there
today
adverb of time
now
then
still
soon
yet
often
adverb of frequency
sometimes
never
hard

hardly


These adverbs have two forms:
without -ly
with -ly
fair
fairly
free
freely
high
highly
late
lately
most
mostly
near
nearly
pretty
prettily
right
rightly
wrong
wrongly

Fill in the words in brackets as adjective or adverb like in the example.

Example: Peter works ______ (slow).

Answer: Peter works slowly.
1) He reads a book. (quick)
2) Mandy is a girl. (pretty)
3) The class is loud today. (terrible)
4) Max is a singer. (good)
5) You can open this tin. (easy)
6) It's a day today. (terrible)
7) She sings the song . (good)
8) He is a driver. (careful)
9) He drives the car . (careful)
10) The dog barks . (loud)


Fill in the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives.

Example: new - _____ - _______

Answer: new - newernewest

1) old - -
2) bad - -
3) difficult - -
4) large - -
5) good - -
6) big - -
7) easy - -
8) much - -
9) little - -
10) interesting - -
Put in the adjective in bold from the first sentence into the second sentence in its correct form (comparative or superlative).

Example: I have a fast car, but my friend has a ______ car.

Answer: I have a fast car, but my friend has a faster car.
1) This is a nice cat. It's much than my friend's cat.
2) Here is Emily. She's six years old. Her brother is nine, so he is .
3) This is a difficult exercise. But the exercise with an asterisk (*) is the exercise on the worksheet.
4) He has an interesting hobby, but my sister has the hobby in the world.
5) In the last holidays I read a good book, but father gave me an even one last weekend.
6) School is boring, but homework is than school.
7) Skateboarding is a dangerous hobby. Bungee jumping is than skateboarding.
8) This magazine is cheap, but that one is .
9) We live in a small house, but my grandparents' house is even than ours.
10) Yesterday John told me a funny joke. This joke was the joke I've ever heard.

Use either as … as or not as … as in the sentecnes below.

Example: Ben Nevis is __________ as Mont Blanc (not/high).

Answer: Ben Nevis is not as high as Mont Blanc.

1) The blue car is the red car. (fast)
2) Peter is Fred. (not/tall)
3) The violin is the cello. (not/low)
4) This copy is the other one. (bad)
5) Oliver is Peter. (optimistic)
6) Today it's yesterday. (not/windy)
7) The tomato soup was the mushroom soup. (delicious)
8) Grapefruit juice is lemonade. (not/sweet)
9) Nick is Kevin. (brave)
10) Silver is gold. (not/heavy)
















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